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Small vector optimization

By now, I hope I convinced you that std::vector is the first data structure that you should consider to use unless you need an associative container.

But even when we cleverly use reserve to prevent superfluous heap allocations and copies, there will be a least one heap allocation at the beginning. Can we do better?

Sure we can! If you have read already about the small string optimization you know where this is going.

"Static" vectors and "Small" vectors

When you are sure that your vector is small and will remain small-ish even in the worst-case scenario, you can allocate the entire array of elements in the stack, and skip the expensive heap allocation.

You may think that this is unlikely, but you will be surprised to know that this happens much more often than you may expect. Just 2 weeks ago, I identified this very same pattern in one of our libraries, where the size of some vector could be any number between 0 and 8 at most.

A 30 minutes refactoring improved the overals speed of our software by 20%!

Summarizing, you want the familiar API of this guy:

std::vector<double> my_data; // at least one heap allocation unless size is 0 

When in fact, under the hood, you want this:

double my_data[MAX_SIZE]; // no heap allocations 
int size_my_data;

Let's see a simple and naive implementation of StaticVector:

#include <array>
#include <initializer_list>

template <typename T, size_t N>
class StaticVector

  using iterator       = typename std::array<T,N>::iterator;
  using const_iterator = typename std::array<T,N>::const_iterator;

  StaticVector(uint8_t n=0): _size(n) {
    if( _size > N ){
      throw std::runtime_error("SmallVector overflow");

  StaticVector(const StaticVector& other) = default;
  StaticVector(StaticVector&& other) = default;

  StaticVector(std::initializer_list<T> init)
    _size = init.size();
    for(int i=0; i<_size; i++) { _storage[i] = init[i]; }

  void push_back(T val){
    _storage[_size++] = val;
    if( _size > N ){
      throw std::runtime_error("SmallVector overflow");

  void pop_back(){
    if( _size == 0 ){
      throw std::runtime_error("SmallVector underflow");
    back().~T(); // call destructor

  size_t size() const { return _size; }

  void clear(){ while(_size>0) { pop_back(); } }

  T& front() { return _storage.front(); }
  const T& front() const { return _storage.front(); }

  T& back() { return _storage[_size-1]; }
  const T& back() const { return _storage[_size-1]; }

  iterator begin() { return _storage.begin(); }
  const_iterator begin() const { return _storage.begin(); }

  iterator end() { return _storage.end(); }
  const_iterator end() const { return _storage.end(); }

  T& operator[](uint8_t index) { return _storage[index]; }
  const T& operator[](uint8_t index) const { return _storage[index]; }

  T& data() { return; }
  const T& data() const { return; }

  std::array<T,N> _storage;
  uint8_t _size = 0;

StaticVector looks like a std::vector but is...

In some cases, there is a very high probability that a vector-like container will have at most N elements, but we are not "absolutely sure".

We can still use a container, generally known as SmallVector, that will use the pre-allocated memory from the stack for its first N elements and only when the container needs to grow further, will create a new storage block using an heap allocation.

StaticVector and SmallVector in the wild

It turn out that these tricks are well known and can be found implemented and ready to use in many popular libraries: